Know About Sandfly Fever

Sandfly fever is caused by Rhabdoviridae family of viruses, genus Vesiculovirus (Vesicular stomatitis virus, Piry virus etc.).

Transmission of sandfly fever:

Sandfly fever is transmitted by sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi. Usually female sandfly get infected after taking a blood meal from a patient harboring the virus. Female sandfly may transmit the virus to its offspring, if she lays eggs after having a second blood meal of infected human. This transovarian transmission of sandfly causing virus in sandfly makes it difficult to control the virus.

Which areas of the world have problem of sandfly fever?

Sandfly fever is seen around Mediterranean areas of Africa, Europe as well as Asia. To the East, sandfly fever is found from Mediterranean to the Balkans to China as well as Middle East and Southwest Asia. The vector (i.e. sandfly) is found in rural as well as urban areas. The vector is of small size (smaller than a mosquito) and can easily penetrate standard mosquito screens used for prevention of mosquito bite and malaria, during sleeping. Sandfly remains within a short radius from its origin (birth) and rarely can go far from its breeding place. Epidemics of sandfly fever have occurred after wars and natural disasters (such as earthquake, floods). A typical pattern of sandfly fever is seen in endemic areas, i.e. high attack rate of sandfly fever among travelers and military personnel, but no incidence among local population, because they are immune from childhood after first attack.

What are the symptoms of sandfly fever?

Sandfly fever previously was known as “3-day fever”, because of its brief and debilitating fever of few days. There may be myalgia in many cases. It is a benign disorder and complete recovery without any complication is the most common outcome of the disease. The symptom mainly consists of fever of approximately 3 days duration (2-4 days). Generally there is no CNS (central nervous system) involvement and there is no skin rash (common in many viral infections). Complete recovery occurs after fever subsides.

Treatment of sandfly fever:

The treatment of sandfly fever is symptomatic. No specific treatment is required or essential. Symptomatic relief is sufficient for management of sandfly fever.

 

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