What Are The Causes Of Pneumonia?

What Are The Causes Of Pneumonia?


We know by now that we need to eat the right foods, need to work out, and do stuff that is healthy for us. Because maintaining good health does not happen by accident, it requires work and smart lifestyle choices. But sometimes when we wake up at 6 am to hit the gym before work or shunning the donuts in breakfast, it’s easy to lose sight of for what are we doing all these. So here are some top articles choices that can keep you motivated to lead a healthy lifestyle and keep diseases at bay.

What Are The Causes Of Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is infection of pulmonary (lung) parenchyma. Pneumonia (including community acquired pneumonia and healthcare associated pneumonia) can be caused by variety of organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa.

The common causative agents of CAP (community-acquired pneumonia) are (in order of frequency):

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae
  • Respiratory viruses such as Influenza A and B viruses, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, parainfluenza viruses

Common causative agents of non-ICU healthcare associated pneumonia are (in order of frequency)

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Leginella species
  • Respiratory viruses (such as Influenza A and B viruses, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, parainfluenza viruses)

Common causative agents for ICU healthcare associated pneumonia are (in order of frequency)

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Leginella species
  • Gram negative bacilli
  • Haemophilus influenzae

There are various risk factors involved in causation of CAP (community-acquired pneumonia) and the causative agents in bracket. They include

  • Alcoholism (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae)
  • Smoking and COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae)
  • Structural lung disease such as bronchiectasis (P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus)
  • Neurological disorders such as stroke, dementia, lower level of consciousness (Oral anaerobes, gram-negative organisms)
  • Lung abscess (community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oral anaerobes, endemic fungi, M. tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteria)
  • Stay in cruise ship or in a hotel in preceding two weeks (Leginella species)
  • Influenza epidemic in locality (influenza virus)
  • Travel to different locations inside own country as well as abroad
  • Exposure to birds (Chlamydophila psittaci), bats (H. capsulatum), rabbit (Francisella tularensis)
  • Exposure to goat, sheep or parturient cats (Coxiella burnetii)

 

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