Transmission and Spread of Malaria

Transmission and Spread of Malaria


We know by now that we need to eat the right foods, need to work out, and do stuff that is healthy for us. Because maintaining good health does not happen by accident, it requires work and smart lifestyle choices. But sometimes when we wake up at 6 am to hit the gym before work or shunning the donuts in breakfast, it’s easy to lose sight of for what are we doing all these. So here are some top articles choices that can keep you motivated to lead a healthy lifestyle and keep diseases at bay.

Transmission and Spread of Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease which is spread by the female Anopheles mosquito. It can spread through blood transmission since the malarial parasite resides in your red blood cells once you are infected. Malaria may also be passed on through the placenta from an infected mother to her child during or after delivery, which is termed as congenital malaria. It is a serious disease and can be fatal if you do not recognise its signs and symptoms on time and get it treated. This disease is caused by any of the four different parasites of blood, called Plasmodia.

Several factors like climate, geographical location and environmental conditions contribute to the spread of malaria depending on the nature of transmission. Nations which are located along the equator register most cases of malaria along with the sub-Saharan Africa area, South America and the Asian regions that lie over the equator. Frequent traveling to these areas can be risky as you stand a chance of getting affected with malaria, which may lead to transmission of the disease to other parts of the world too.

Climate is also a factor that plays a major role in the spreading of malaria. Mosquitoes cannot thrive in dry weather and so nations which have warm weather with frequent downpours serve as the best spots for harbouring these insects. Mosquitoes lay their eggs in stagnant water and so nations which witness monsoon rains with gaps in between see a growth of malaria, as water is allowed to accumulate and remain static.

As said earlier malaria spreads through the female Anopheles mosquito and it is interesting to note that no other mosquito type can spread malaria. When Anopheles bites a person infected with malaria, it in turn gets infected with one of the four Plasmodium parasites that causes malaria in human beings. At this point it becomes important to know how malaria gets transmitted or how the malaria transmission cycle occurs.

The malaria transmission cycle involves two vectors and human hosts. Vector is defined as an organism that carries disease-causing microbes from one host to another and in this case, the female anopheles mosquito is the vector. The transmission cycle starts when a female anopheles mosquito carrying one of the four malarial parasites, Plasmodium sporozoites, bites you. As a result you become the first human host and get infected with malaria.

Once you are infected, the malarial parasite is carried to your liver via the bloodstream. On reaching your liver, it matures and slowly starts affecting your red blood cells, eventually causing a blood infection. The affected RBCs burst which is the reason why you experience chills and other flu-like symptoms associated with malaria. If you are pregnant when you get bitten by an anopheles mosquito, the infection may get transmitted to your uterus causing congenital malaria to your unborn baby.

When the RBCs in your blood are infected, another parasite-free female anopheles mosquito might bite you picking up the malaria-causing parasite from your blood. Once the parasite is inside the mosquito, it starts infecting the salivary gland of the insect. This is the primary method of transmitting malaria and the cycle continues.

It should be remembered that you do not start feeling ill just after malaria transmission takes place. There is an incubation period during which the malarial parasite develops which then leads to symptoms of malaria. One strain of plasmodium can develop within a week and some may develop within months and some might take years to grow.

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