Know about Diabetes

Know about Diabetes

Know about Diabetes

If you think diabetes is a single entity or disease, you are mistaken, because diabetes or diabetes mellitus is actually a group of metabolic disorders which all have a common symptom, i.e. hyperglycemia (high blood sugar level). There are at present four types of diabetes that are recognized, namely Type-I diabetes, Type-II diabetes, Gestational diabetes (diabetes occurring or diagnosed at the time of pregnancy) and ‘Other specific types of diabetes’. All the above four types of diabetes occurs due to complex interaction between genetical and environmental factors.

Out of the four types of diabetes mentioned above, the most common is type-II diabetes and the next common and important is type-I diabetes. The other two types are comparatively less common. Type-1 diabetes is due to complete or near complete lack of insulin due to destruction of insulin producing cells and type-2 is due to relative deficiency of insulin or due to insulin resistance.

The major contributors of hyperglycemia in diabetes include reduced insulin secretion (by far the most common cause of hyperglycemia in diabetes), increased production of glucose or reduced utilization of glucose. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common causes of blindness (especially in developed countries; in developing countries infectious diseases such as trachoma are common cause of blindness), end-stage renal disease, and nontraumatic amputations of lower extremity.

Diabetes causes a huge burden to the health care system, economy as well as to the individual who is suffering from diabetes. Diabetes causes several common complications, many of which are serious and life threatening. Diabetes is one of the common predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes directly and by causing complications, cause great burden to not only individual but to the health care system of a nation.

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