Cancer control (Secondary prevention)

Cancer control (Secondary prevention)


We know by now that we need to eat the right foods, need to work out, and do stuff that is healthy for us. Because maintaining good health does not happen by accident, it requires work and smart lifestyle choices. But sometimes when we wake up at 6 am to hit the gym before work or shunning the donuts in breakfast, it’s easy to lose sight of for what are we doing all these. So here are some top articles choices that can keep you motivated to lead a healthy lifestyle and keep diseases at bay.

Cancer control (Secondary prevention)

Secondary prevention comprises the following measures:

(1) Cancer registration:

Cancer registration is a sine qua non for any cancer control programme. It provides a base for planning the necessary services and for assessment of the magnitude of the problem of cancer. Cancer registries are of two types: hospital-based and population based registries.

(a) Hospital-based registries: The hospital-based registry includes all patients treated by a particular institution, both inpatients and out patients. Registries collect data as recommended by WHO in the “WHO Handbook for Standardized Cancer Registers”. If follow-up is long-term, hospital-based registries can be of considerable value in the evaluation of diagnostic and treatment programmes and also for research. Since hospital population will always be a selected population, the use of hospital-based registries for epidemiological purposes is limited.

(b) Population-based registries: The best thing to do is to set up a “hospital-based cancer registry” and extend it to a “population-based cancer registry”. 2-7 million is the optimum size of base population for population based registry. The aim is to cover the complete cancer situation in a given geographic area. The data from such registries alone can provide the incidence rate of cancer and serve as a useful tool for initiating epidemiological enquiries into causes of cancer, surveillance of time trends and planning and evaluation of operational activities in all main areas of cancer control.

(2) Early detection of cases:

Cancer screening is the main weapon for early detection of cancer at a pre-invasive (in situ) or pre malignant (cancerous) stage. Effective screening programmes have been developed for cervical cancer (Papanicolaou smear, known as pap smear), breast cancer (mammography) and oral cancer. Like primary prevention, early diagnosis has to be conducted on a large scale. But it is possible to increase the efficiency of screening programmes by focusing on high-risk groups. but there is no point in detecting cancer at an early stage unless facilities for treatment and after care are available. Early detection programmes will require mobilization of all available resources and development of a cancer infrastructure starting at the level of primary health care, ending with complex cancer centers or institutions at state or national levels (tertiary health care).

(3) Treatment:

Treatment facilities should be available to all cancer patients. Some of the cancers are amenable to surgical removal, while some others respond favorably to radiation or chemotherapy or combination of both. Since most of the known methods of treatment have only complementary effect on the ultimate outcome of the patient, multi-modality approach to cancer control has become a standard practice in cancer centers. In the developed countries cancer treatment is geared to high technology. For those who are beyond the curable stage, the goal must be to provide pain relief. A largely neglected problem in cancer care is the management of pain. The WHO has developed guidelines on relief of cancer pain Freedom from cancer pain is now considered a right for cancer patients.

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