What are the Indications of Liver Transplantation

ID-10093567Liver transplantation is replacement of diseased liver for an individual with a normal organ (part of liver) from another individual (human, known as allograft). Liver transplantation is the last option of treatment of various end stage liver diseases (listed below), when there is no hope of revival of liver.

Liver transplantation is conducted routinely (currently in United States alone more than 6,000 liver transplantations are done each year, although the waiting list is several times higher, due to poor availability of transplantable liver) these days (which was reserved for desperately ill patients only, few decades ago). The success of liver transplantation is measured by one year survival rate (i.e. if a patient survive for at least one year after liver transplantation, it is considered successful in medical terms). Currently the success rate is more than 90% (success rate was approximately 30% in 1970s) due to improvement of various aspects (refinements/improvement in operative technique, improvements in organ procurement and preservation, advances in immunosuppressive therapy etc.) of liver transplantation.

Liver transplantation is a treatment option for the following medical conditions in case of children:

  • Biliary atresia
  • Neonatal hepatitis
  • Congenital fibrosis of liver
  • Rare medical disorders such as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Alagille’s disease, Byler’s disease etc.
  • Certain inherited disorders of metabolism such as Wilson’s disease, glycogen storage disease, lysosomal storage disease, tyrosinemia, protoporphyria, Crigler-Najjar disease, familial hypercholesterolemia, hemophilia etc.

The indications for liver transplantation among adults include:

  • Biliary cirrhosis, primary and secondary
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Chronic hepatitis with cirrhosis
  • Alcoholic cirrhosis
  • Cryptogenic cirrhosis
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis,
  • Caroli’s disease,
  • Fulminant hepatitis
  • Chronic viral hepatitis
  • Hepatic vein thrombosis
  • Liver cancers, primary
  • Hepatic adenomas
  • Non alcoholic steatohepatitis

“Image courtesy of rajcreationzs / FreeDigitalPhotos.net”.

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