Uses of Medical Textile Fibers in Various Medical Disorders

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ID-100126403In the management of various cardiovascular diseases medical textiles can play a major and significant role. Uses of medical textiles in the field of medicine (especially for management of various heart and vascular diseases hence called cardiovascular textiles) is there since 1960s. There are various fibers used in cardiovascular implants (such as vascular grafts, heart valve, sewing cuffs etc.), such as polytetrafluroethylene (commonly known brand name is Teflon), polydioxanone, polyester etc.

The medical textiles that are commonly used generally have polymeric and/or metallic filaments. Weaving, knitting, braiding of various medical textiles (with or without other materials such as metals) is used to make yarn for medical use.

Polytetrafluroethylene is used as cardiovascular textile, because of several properties such as:

  • No known significant adverse effect on human body
  • Very low coefficient of friction
  • High melting point of more than 300 degree Centigrade
  • High resistivity,
  • Dielectric properties
  • It is a synthetic fluropolymer

Because of the above unique properties of polytetrafluroethylene, it is one of the commonly used material for cardiovascular textiles. Polytetrafluroethylene is also used as suture material for various cardiovascular surgeries, for repair of mitral valve, prosthetic heart valve rings etc. Prosthetic heart valve rings are semi-impermeable or impermeable coating covered on the surface for protection from tissue ingrowth. For manufacturing of prosthetic heart valves, polytetrafluroethylene is used along with titanium and pyrolytic carbon, to make the prosthetic heart valve non-thrombogenic and compatible with blood materials and body defense.

Polydioxanone is used as cardiovascular textile, because of several properties:

  • Good flexibility
  • No effect/reaction on humans
  • Biodegradable

The above properties make polydioxanone suitable for use as medical textile and used in various cardiovascular implants, in plastic surgery, in various orthopedic surgeries, tissue cultures and also in various drug delivery systems.

Polyester is used as cardiovascular textile, because of several properties:

  • High melting point and heat resistant
  • Resistant to wrinkle formation
  • Cross linking and polymerization can be done
  • Suitable mechanical properties for use as cardiovascular textile/implant

The above properties make polyester a suitable material to be used as medical textile in various cardiovascular implants such as heart valves.

Designers and engineers are working are continuously working on development of new medical fibers/textiles for use in various medical fields, including for management of cardiovascular diseases. Designers and engineers are developing new advance medical technologies and procedures to be used in future and keeping pace with innovations and developments in the field of medicine.

Image courtesy of Victor Habbick / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

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