One or two drinks per day have some beneficial effects on healthy and non pregnant persons. At higher dose alcohol is toxic to many organ systems. More than 80% of population consumes alcohol in their lifetime, though many do not cross the limit, it is better to have knowledge on alcohol intoxication. The following details given below apply to all people regardless of gender, age, or race, but older persons carry a greater risk. But it is also a fact that all the alcoholics do not develop many of the adverse effects of alcohol.
Central Nervous System (CNS): Alcohol causes depression to central nervous system, contrary to the belief that it causes stimulation .Stimulation may occur at low blood level. Approximately 35% of alcoholics experience a blackout an episode of temporary amnesia or forgetfulness, in which they can not remember all or what occurred during drinking .Alcohol causes alteration in the sleep stage and they can not sleep deeply and they get fatigued. Alcohol causes relaxation of muscles of pharynx and cause snoring and sleeps apnea which is breathing disturbance during sleep and is seen more commonly in old people abuse 60 years. Alcohol impacts the judgment and coordination and they crate lots of trouble. Peripheral neuropathy is seen in about 10% of alcoholics and alcoholics experience numbers of limbs, tingling and parenthesis. Out 1% of alcoholics develop degeneration of brain & it becomes smaller in size.
Alcoholics manifest severe impairment of recent & remote memories for weeks to months. Almost every psychiatric problem can be seen temporarily in heavy drinking or during withdrawal. These include, sadness lasting for days to weeks, anxiety commonly seen during alcohol withdrawal. These are known as alcohol induced mood disorder. These many be auditory hallucination or paranoid delusions in alcoholics.
Cancer: Drinking as low as 1.5 drinks per day increases chance of breast cancer about 1.5 told in women. Four drinks per day increase risk of oral and esophageal cancer by three told and rectal cancer by two fold. Chances of other cancers also increase many fold in alcoholics.
Liver: Alcohol causes development of cirrhosis of liver up to 20% of alcoholics. There is no cure once cirrhosis develops. Alcohol induces liver to produce less glucose and cause deficiency of glucose. Fat accumulator is more in liver and there may be alcohol induced hepatitis. Incidence of pancreas infection also increases.
Esophagus and stomach: Ault alcohol intake can cause inflammation, irritation an ulceration of esophagus and stomach chronic alcohol intake may induce heavy vomiting and can cause tear in the fun chain of stomach with esophagus.
Blood: Alcohol causes an increase in red cell size and they find it difficult to cross capillaries. Heavy drinking causes deficiency in many nutrients like vitamin of white blood cells fight against microbes.
Cardiovascular system: Consumption of three or more drinks per day results in dose dependent within weeks often abstinence. Heavy drinking causes cardiac (heart) muscle damage and can cause heart failure. After a binge drinking during holidays, heart rate becomes irregular and high without any other evidence of heart disease is called â€œholiday heartâ€.
Moderate intake of one or two drinks per day cause reduction in cardiovascular disease, but heavy drinking increases these. Mortality is lowest in persons who drink one drink per day.
Sexual Function: Alcohol intake (blood level of 100 mgs/dl) can increase sexual drive but reduces performance and erectile capacity in men. Alcohol intake cause atrophy (reduced size) of testicles in men, reduce sperm count and reduced ejaculatory volume.
In women alcohol causes amenorrhea (lack of menstruation), decrease in ovarian size, infertility and spontaneous abortion. Heavy drinking during pregnancy can cause â€œfetal alcohol syndromeâ€ that may cause facial change, small teeth, and poorly formed enamel in the baby.
Other Effects: Up to two third of alcoholics have muscular weakness, that may improve but do not disappear with abstinence. Heavy drinking can cause reduced bone density, and increase chance of fracture. Thyroid function becomes erratic in alcoholics.