Alcohol: a General Understanding

Alcohol is a drug, and consumed at sometime by up to 80% of the population.Alcohol at low class have some baneful effects like reduced rate of cardiovascular problems, gallstone, & some dementias. But consumption of more than two standard drinks per day increases the risk of health problems in many organs. Heavy drinking reduce life expectation by about ten years in both genders, throughout the world, If preexisting diseurs are present , alcohol increase the health risk. Alcohol reduce effectiveness of many drugs medicines) by their metabolism.

Alcohol what is consumed is ethanol or ethyl alcohol. It is weakly charged molecule and can move easily trough cell membranes. The alcohol level in blood is expressed as milligram of ethanol per deciliter or 100 ml of blood. Intoxication starts at as low as 20mg/dL and at 300-400mgs/dL death occurs. On ingestion of one re two typical drinks the blood level of alcohol can cross 20mgs/dL. In round figures per typical drinks alcohol content is about 15 to 20 grams. Common alcohol contains methanol, butanol, aldehydes, esters, histamine, phenols, tannins, iron, lead, cobalt etc. All these may contribute to its adverse effects.

Alcohol is central nervous system (CNS) depressant and has cross reactivity with other CNS depressant drugs. It is absorbed from mucous membrane of mouth and esophagus, in small amounts, from stomach and large bowel in modest amount and from proximal part of small intestine in large amount. Absorption is fast in empty stomach in absence of fat, protein and carbohydrates. Between 2 to 10 % of alcohol is excreted through lungs, urine and sweat. But greater part is metabolized in liver to aldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme.

Alcohol supplies about 100 kcal of energy per typical drinks. But the body can not utilize the calories properly due to lack of minerals, vitamins and proteins, because they are absent in alcohol. Alcohol also interferes with absorption of many vitamins and other nutrients.

An ethanol (alcohol) load in normal fasting healthy individual produces hypoglycemia (lack of glucose in blood) in 6 to 36 hours. This can result in glucose intolerance until alcoholic has abstained for 2 to 4 weeks.

The effect of any drug depends on dose and its concentration in plasma. In alcohol when blood level is raising the effect is more profound. The “legal intoxication” in USA is 80 to 100 mgs per 100 ml of blood. But behavior, psychomotor and cognitive changes are seen in as low as 20 mgs level, which can be seen after one or two typical drinks. At 80 mgs/dL level motor function falls drastically.

Three types of compensatory changes occur in alcoholics. First, after one to two weeks of daily drinking metabolic tolerance is seen, this increases rate of alcohol metabolism by 30%. Secondly, “cellular tolerance” develop through neurochemical changes, this contribute to physical dependence. Thirdly, alcoholic individual learns to adapt their behavior so that they can function better than expected under influence of alcohol.

Related Posts

1 Comment

  • diablo 3 tips February 20, 2013 01.23 am

    One other issue issue is that video games are normally serious naturally with the principal focus on mastering rather than entertainment. Although, there’s an entertainment feature to keep the kids engaged, each one game is normally designed to work with a specific skill set or program, such as mathematics or technology. Thanks for your article.

    Reply 

Leave a Comment

Loading...